2016考研英语:考研必背的基础语法知识点

  4.it形式宾语:和it 作形式主语一样,  我们常用it 来作形式宾语, 把真正的宾语从句放在句末, 这种情况尤其出现在带复合宾语的句子中。

地点状语从句:where,wherever(无论那里)。

  10. 不定式:不定式做目的状语。例句:We get up very early to catch the first bus。

按照句子的用途,英语的句子可分:陈述句(肯定、否定)、疑问句(一般、特殊、选择、反意)、祈使句、感叹句等四种。

  例句: Only by diligence and honesty can one succeed in life.  只有勤奋、正直,一个人在生活中才能成功。 

名词性从句的连接词可分为三类:that无词义,在从句中不担任成分,有时可被省略;表示“是否”用whether,只有在宾语从句中,whether可被人if代替。Whether和if在从句中不担任成分。如果从句缺少主语、表语、宾语、或定语等句子成分,用连接代词what, whatever, who, whoever, whom, whose, which;如果从句缺少状语,用连接副词when, where, how, why。

  例句:Now that we have all the materials ready, we should begin the new task at once。既然我们把所有材料都准备好了,我们应该立刻开始这项新的工作。

表示选择关系常用的连词有:or, either…or…, otherwise等

  5. 宾语从句:放在介词后面,作介词的宾语。

② 并列句的分类

  原因状从: in that的用法。例句:

按照句子的结构可分:简单句并列句和复合句三种。

  注意:但 only修饰主语时,不倒装。例句: Only that girl knew how to work out the problem.  只有那位女生知道怎样解那道题。

②在so/such...that.。.结果状语从句中,so+形容词/副词或such+名词置于句首时,主句采用部分倒装语序。例如:

  2.only引导的倒装句型:only +状语 (或状语从句)位于句首时,句子部分倒装。 

② 非限制性定语从句:从句与先行词关系不密切,去掉定从句,意思仍然完整。形式上用逗号隔开,不能that用引导。例如:His movie won several awards at the film festival, which was beyond his wildest dream. (去掉定语从句,主句的意思仍完整)

  3.wish引导的虚拟语气:wish 后面的从句,当表示与事实相反的情况,或表示将来不太可能实现的愿望时,其宾语从句的动词形式为: 

复合句中通常采用陈述语序。但是,在下面的几种情况下,状语从句多采用倒装语序:

  例句: Scarcely had he arrived at home when it began to rain。

Such was the force of the explosion that windows were blown out。

  Do you remember the girl who taught us English ?你还记得教我们英语的那个女孩吗?

更多高考信息请访问:高考频道 高考论坛 高考博客圈 高考贴吧

  语法知识点3

(3)关系代词和关系副词的用法:

  2.省略句 /倒装:so/系动词/助动词/情态动词 +sb 表示“前者情况适用于后者”。例句:

④在句式hardly/scarcely…when…, no sooner…than…中,第一个分句中过去完成时,第二个分句用一般过去时。例如:She had hardly sat down when the phone rang。

  7. 原因状从:for的用法。由because 引导的从句如果放在句末,且前面有逗号,则可以用并列连词 for 来代替。但如果不是说明直接原因,而是多种情况加以推断,就只能用 for 。例句:He is absent today, because/for he is ill. 他今天没来,因为他生病了。

比较状语从句:(not) as/so…as…,than…, the more…the more…(越……越……) 引导。

  例句:He has made it clear that he will not give in. 他表明他不会屈服。 

(4)限制性定语从句与非限制性定语从句的区别

  例句:I wish you would be quiet.  我希望你安静一些。 

当从句的主语与主句的主语相同时,被动结构的状语从句,可省略与主句相同的主语和助动词,保留连词+过去分词;主动结构的状语从句,可省略与主句相同的主语和助动词,保留连词+现在分词。例如:We all know that, if not carefully dealt with, the situation will get worse。

  ⑴表示对现在情况的虚拟:从句动词用过去式或过去进行式表示,be 的过去式用were.   

He made a long speech, as we expected。

图片 1
扫码关注考研圈微信

方式状语从句:as(正如;按照),as if/as though (好像)引导。

  例句: I want to know if he will join us in the discussion?

①表示“同时”意义的连词as, when, as soon as, the moment, while 等连接的时间状语从句,主句和从句时态基本一致。例如:As time passed, things seemed to get worse。

  2. 原因状语从句:since引导的

b. as可指代主句的内容,引导的非限制性定语从句既可放在主句之前,也可放在主句之后。常用于下列句型:as is known to all, as is said, as is reported, as is announced, as we all know, as I expect 等。例如: He got the first place again in this mid-term examination, as we expected。

  You are a student, so am I。

(6)状语从句被用于强调结构中

  (2)在否定句或疑问句中可用 not so…as…. 例句:He can not run so/as fast as you. 他没你跑得快。

(1)名词性从句分类:

  ⑶表示对将来的主观愿望:谓语动词形式为“would/ should/ could/ might +动词原形”。在这种情况下,主句的主语与从句的主语不能相同,因为主句的主语所期望的从句动作能否实现,取决于从句主语的态度或意愿(非动作名词除外) 。 

目的状语从句:in order that (为了),so that (以便)。

  4.宾语从句:whether的用法。例句:I wonder if/whether it is going to rain tomorrow。

(1)状语从句的分类

  例句:The more scared we are, the stronger the difficulty will become。我们越害怕困难,困难就会变得越强大。

The man who lives downstairs makes it a rule to run in the park in the morning。

  Privatization is thought to be beneficial in that it promotes competition. 私营化的优点在于能促进相互竞争。

(5)状语从句的省略

  5.The+比较级,the+比较级  表示“越....。。越....。。”。

三。复习要点

  5.不定式做定语。例句:The only way to solve our problems will continue to be rejected。

I want to buy the same shirt as yours。

  语法知识点2

③ since引导的时间状语从句多用一般过去时,而含有since从句的主句通常用现在完成时。例如:I haven’t met her since I left university。

  ⑵表示对过去情况的虚拟:从句动词用had +过去分词。 

定语从句分为限制性定语从句非限制性定语从句两种。限制性定语从句对先行词起修饰和限制作用,而非限制性定语从句对先行词起补充和解释说明作用。通常限制性定语从句与先行词之间没有逗号,而非限制性定语从句与先行词之间有逗号隔开。

  4. If虚拟条件句

状语从句通常修饰主句的动词或整个句子,由从属连词引导,从属连词在从句中不充当句子成分。根据状语从句所表达的不同意义和功能,可分为时间、地点、原因、条件、目的、结果、让步、比较、方式等状语从句。

  1.并列句:由and, or , but连接的两个句子成为并列句。

This is the best coffee maker that I have ever been made。

  9. 同位语从句:I want to know the answer to this question who will be our next president。

①限制性定语从句:从句与主句关系密切,去掉从句,主句意义不完整,甚至不合逻辑。例如:I was the only person in our office who was invited。(去掉定语从句,句意就不完整)

  I wish it would stop raining.  但愿雨能停止。 

2.状语从句:

  I wish (that) I hadn’t wasted so much time.  我后悔不该浪费这么多时间。( 实际上已经浪费掉了。) 

原因状语从句:because, since, as, now that。

  6.状语从句省略(分词作状语):从句的主语和状语从句的主语一致,状从省略采用分词作状语。例句:

I find it astonishing that he should be so rude to his mum。

  1.as...as.。。引导的比较级:(1)“as +形容词或副词原级+ as+被比较对象”结构。例句: He studies as hard as you. 他像你一样学习努力。

①当先行词为人时用who 作主语,whom作宾语;②当先行词为物或整个句子时用which,可作主语或宾语;③先行词为人、物时用that ,可作主语或宾语;④ whose用作定语,可指人或物;⑤ 关系副词when指时间,在定语从句中作时间状语;⑥where(指地点,在定语从句中作地点状语);why指原因,在定语从句中作原因状语。

  例句: Don’t eat too much sugar since it is bad for your health。

Strange though it may seem, I like housework。

  语法知识点1

一。考纲要求

  8. 原因状从:as 的用法。例句:The Singapore passengers begin to decrease as other airlines spread their operating range。

(1)It is+形容词+that…句型。常见的形容词有important, necessary, natural, funny, strange, surprising, astonishing(令人惊讶的)等。

  例句:I know nothing about him except that he used to work in Shanghai。

Much as I have traveled, I have never seen anyone who’s as capable as John。

  从句 主句
跟现在事实相反 一般过去式(be用were) would/should/might/could +动原
跟过去事实相反 had+done would/should/might/could+have done
跟将来事实相反 should+动原;were to do sth would/should/might/could +动原

However amusing the story is, I have to put it away and focus my attention on study this week。

  5.倒装:否定词seldom前移,句子倒装。例句:Seldom did he speak。

⑤ 在the +比较级the+比较级句式中,只是把形容词或副词置于句首,句子仍然采用陈述语序。例如:Education is about learning and the more you learn, the more equipped for life you are。

  文章来源:跨考教育[微博]

  1. 名词性从句

②在insist(坚持), urge (催促), order(命令), command(命令), suggest(建议),advise(建议),recommend(建议,推荐), request(请求,要求), demand(要求),require(要求,需要)等动词后的宾语从句中,谓语动词用“should+动词原形”, should可省略。

  3. 否定词前置倒装:scarcely...when。.

Though lacking money, his parents managed to send him to university。

  注意:若wish 后的宾语从句中用 would,可以表示请求,通常意味着说话人的不快或不满。

The first place that they visited in Guilin was Lijing。

  1. 宾语从句:一般疑问句做宾语,引入if或whether

结果状语从句: so that (结果是), so/such…that (如此……以至于)。

  6.原因状从:now that的用法。now that 表示 “既然”。与 since 的不同之处在于,now that 引出的必须是一个新出现的事实或情况,如果依然如故,和过去相比并没有变化,则不用 now that 引导。

② 用which而不用 that的情况:引导非限制性定语从句;指代整个主句的意思;用于介词 的后面+ 关系代词。例如:Chan’s restaurant on Baker Street, which used to be poorly run, is now a successful business. For many cities in the world, there is no room to spread our further, of which New York is an example。

  I wish I knew the answer to the question.    我希望知道这个问题的答案。(可惜不知道。) 

Such machines as are used in our workshop are made in Germany。

  3.定语从句 who引导的限定性定从。例句:

③ 关系代词as的用法

  (Because) being short of money, we can’t afford a TV set. =Because we are short of money, we can’t afford a TV set。

Mr Smith is the only foreigner teacher that he knows。

(1)定语从句的分类

由于连接代词与连接副词在句中不再是疑问句,因而从句中谓语不用疑问语序。连接代词与连接副词在从句充当句子成分,而连接词whether 和if(是否),在从句中不充当句子成分,只起连接作用。

本文由澳门新葡亰1495app发布于考生解答,转载请注明出处:2016考研英语:考研必背的基础语法知识点

相关阅读